2016考研英语寒假积累之固定搭配

作者:极速赛车开奖官网168

  好多正值预备二零一五大学生考生的考生都通晓都教师,考研[微博]土耳其共和国语在寒假中应该怎么着备考呢,都教授以为,保加利亚共和国语在寒假阶段珍视基本功积攒,除了词汇的记得外,固定搭配也是一大首要,能够援助考生越来越好的理解段落作品宗旨。上边都教授就选取真题带各位考生来看看应该首要记念何种搭配的词汇。

Section I Use of English

  真题段落后生可畏:

Directions:

  The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. But Gregory Cochran is prepared to say it anyway. He is that rare bird, a secientist who works independently of any institution. He helped popularize tha idea that some diseases not previously thought to have a bacterail cause were actually infections ,which aroused much controversy when it was first suggested.

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D onANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Even he, however,might tremble at the thought of what he is about to do.

The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. But Gregory Cochran is to say it anyway. He is that bird, a scientist who works independently any institution. He helped popularize the idea that some diseases not thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections, which aroused much controversy when it was first suggested。

  ●高频搭配

he, however, might tremble at the of what he is about to do. Together with another two scientists, he is publishing a paper which not only that one group of humanity is more intelligent than the others, but explains the process that has brought this about. The group in are a particular people originated from central Europe. The process is natural selection。

  不敢公开:Dare not speak its name

This group generally do well in IQ test, 12-15 points above the value of 100, and have contributed to the intellectual and cultural life of the West, as the of their elites, including several world-renowned scientists, . They also suffer more often than most people from a number of nasty genetic diseases, such as breast cancer. These facts, , have previously been thought unrelated. The former has been to social effects, such as a strong tradition of education. The latter was seen as a (an) of genetic isolation. Dr. Cochran suggests that the intelligence and diseases are intimately . His argument is that the unusual history of these people has them to unique evolutionary pressures that have resulted in this state of affairs。

  不依赖于任何机关:Work indipendently of any institution

1.[A] selected[B] prepared[C] obliged[D] pleased

  援救分布该意见:Help popularize the idea

2.[A] unique[B] particular[C] special[D] rare

  引起了超级大的争论:Arouse much controversy

3.[A] of[B] with[C] in[D] against

  生机勃勃想到……就胆颤心惊的躯干颤抖:Tremble at the thought of

4.[A] subsequently[B] presently[C] previously[D] lately

  独出心裁,头角峥嵘的人:Rare bird

5.[A] Only[B] So[C] Even[D] Hence

  由细菌孳生的:Have a bacterial cause

6.[A] thought[B] sight[C] cost[D] risk

  ●加强习题

7.[A] advises[B] suggests[C] protests[D] objects

  He helped popularize the idea that some diseases not previously thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections , which aroused much controversy when it was first suggested.

8.[A] progress[B] fact[C] need[D] question

  结构提示:that some diseases 是前方 the idea 的同位语从句,not previously thought to have a bacterial cause做前置定语修饰前边的diseases,主干是some diseases were actually infections.

9.[A] attaining[B] scoring[C] reaching[D] calculating

  参照他事他说加以考察译文:他帮忙普遍那样二个理念,即此前以为不是由细菌孳生的有些病痛实际正是传染病,该意见第贰遍提议来的时候,引起了不小的争论。

10.[A] normal[B] common[C] mean[D] total

  真题段落二:

11.[A] unconsciously[B] disproportionately

  They also suffer more often than most people from a number of nasty genetic diseases, such as breast cancer. These facts , however, social effects, such as a strong tradition of valuing education. The latterwas seen as a consequence of genetic isolation .Dr.Cochran suggests that the inteligence and diseases are intimately linked. His argument is that the unusual history of these people has subjected them to unique evolutionary pressures that have reasulted in this paradoxical state of affairs.

[C] indefinitely[D] unaccountably

  ●高频搭配

12.[A] missions[B] fortunes[C] interests[D] careers

  遭遇局部令人难受的遗传性病魔

13.[A] affirm[B] witness[C] observe[D] approve

  以前被认为是不相干的have previously been thought unrelated

14.[A] moreover[B] therefore[C] however[D] meanwhile

  归因于社会影响 have been put down to social effects

15.[A] given up[B] got over[C] carried on[D] put down

  中度重教的观念a strong tradition of valuing education

16.[A] assessing[B] supervising[C] administering[D] valuing

  被看做基因隔开分离的结果 be seen as a consequence of genetic isolation

17.[A] development[B] origin[C] consequence[D] instrument

  密切相关 be intimately linked

18.[A] linked[B] integrated[C] woven[D] combined

  使他们接纳独特的腾飞力量have subjected them to unique evolutionary pressures

19.[A] limited[B] subjected[C] converted[D] directed

  冲突的气象 paradoxical state of affairs

20.[A] paradoxical[B] incompatible[C] inevitable[D] continuous

  ●巩固习题

Section Ⅱ Reading comprehension (50 points)

  Dr.Cochran suggests that the intelligence and diseases are intimately linked.

Part A

  参谋译文:Cochran大学生以为,高智与疾病紧凑相关。

Directions:

  希望经过这两段真题中的段落,能让考生意识到应有储存何种固定搭配,寒假是打牢功底的好时节,希望各位考生能够踏实备考。预祝我们备考顺遂,拿到理想佳绩!

Read the following four passages. Answer the questions below each passage by choosing A, B, C and D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

  文章来源:文都教育

Text1

The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model of first clarifying goals, assessing the problem, formulating options, estimating likelihoods of success, making a decision, and only then taking action to implement the decision. Rather, in their day-by-day tactical maneuvers, these senior executives rely on what is vaguely termed intuition to manage a network of interrelated problems that require them to deal with ambiguity, inconsistency, novelty, and surprise; and to integrate action into the process of thinking。

Generations of writers on management have recognized that some practicing managers rely heavily on intuition. In general, however, such writers display a poor grasp of what intuition is. Some see it as the opposite of rationality; others view it as an excuse for capriciousness。

Isenberg's recent research on the cognitive processes of senior managers reveals that managers' intuition is neither of these. Rather, senior managers use intuition in at least five distinct ways. First, they intuitively sense when a problem exists. Second, managers rely on intuition to perform well-learned behavior patterns rapidly. This intuition is not arbitrary or irrational, but is based on years of painstaking practice and hands-on experience that build skills. A third function of intuition is to synthesize isolated bits of data and practice into an integrated picture, often in an Aha! experience. Fourth, some managers use intuition as a check on the results of more rational analysis. Most senior executives are familiar with the formal decision analysis models and tools, and those who use such systematic methods for reaching decisions are occasionally leery of solutions suggested by these methods which run counter to their sense of the correct course of action. Finally, managers can use intuition to bypass in-depth analysis and move rapidly to engender a plausible solution. Used in this way, intuition is an almost instantaneous cognitive process in which a manager recognizes familiar patterns。

One of the implications of the intuitive style of executive management is that thinking is inseparable from acting. Since managers often know what is right before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently act first and explain later. Analysis is inextricably tied to action in thinking/acting cycles, in which managers develop thoughts about their companies and organizations not by analyzing a problematic situation and then acting, but by acting and analyzing in close concert。

Given the great uncertainty of many of the management issues that they face, senior managers often instigate a course of action simply to learn more about an issue. They then use the results of the action to develop a more complete understanding of the issue. One implication of thinking/acting cycles is that action is often part of defining the problem, not just of implementing the solution。

  1. According to the text, senior managers use intuition in all of the following ways EXCEPT to

[A] speed up of the creation of a solution to a problem。

[B] identify a problem。

[C] bring together disparate facts。

[D] stipulate clear goals。

  1. The text suggests which of the following about the writers on management mentioned in line 1, paragraph 2?

[A] They have criticized managers for not following the classical rational model of decision analysis。

[B] They have not based their analyses on a sufficiently large sample of actual managers。

[C] They have relied in drawing their conclusions on what managers say rather than on what managers do。

[D] They have misunderstood how managers use intuition in making business decisions。

  1. It can be inferred from the text that which of the following would most probably be one major difference in behavior between Manager X, who uses intuition to reach decisions, and Manager Y, who uses only formal decision analysis?

[A] Manager X analyzes first and then acts; Manager Y does not。

[B] Manager X checks possible solutions to a problem by systematic analysis; Manager Y does not。

[C] Manager X takes action in order to arrive at the solution to a problem; Manager Y does not。

[D] Manager Y draws on years of hands-on experience in creating a solution to a problem; Manager X does not。

  1. The text provides support for which of the following statements?

[A] Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis。

[B] Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions。

[C] Managers'' intuition works contrary to their rational and analytical skills。

[D] Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience more efficiently。

  1. Which of the following best describes the organization of the first paragraph of the text?

[A] An assertion is made and a specific supporting example is given。

[B] A conventional model is dismissed and an alternative introduced。

[C] The results of recent research are introduced and summarized。

[D] Two opposing points of view are presented and evaluated。

Text2

Bernard Bailyn has recently reinterpreted the early history of the United States by applying new social research findings on the experiences of European migrants. In his reinterpretation, migration becomes the organizing principle for rewriting the history of pre-industrial North America. His approach rests on four separate propositions。

The first of these asserts that residents of early modern England moved regularly about their countryside; migrating to the New World was simply a natural spillover. Although at first the colonies held little positive attraction for the English — they would rather have stayed home — by the eighteenth century people increasingly migrated to America because they regarded it as the land of opportunity. Secondly, Bailyn holds that, contrary to the notion that used to flourish in America history textbooks, there was never a typical New World community. For example, the economic and demographic character of early New England towns varied considerably。

Bailyn's third proposition suggest two general patterns prevailing among the many thousands of migrants: one group came as indentured servants, another came to acquire land. Surprisingly, Bailyn suggests that those who recruited indentured servants were the driving forces of transatlantic migration. These colonial entrepreneurs helped determine the social character of people who came to pre-industrial North America. At first, thousands of unskilled laborers were recruited; by the 1730's, however, American employers demanded skilled artisans。

Finally, Bailyn argues that the colonies were a half-civilized hinterland of the European culture system. He is undoubtedly correct to insist that the colonies were part of an Anglo-American empire. But to divide the empire into English core and colonial periphery, as Bailyn does, devalues the achievements of colonial culture. It is true, as Bailyn claims, that high culture in the colonies never matched that in England. But what of seventeenth-century New England, where the settlers created effective laws, built a distinguished university, and published books? Bailyn might respond that New England was exceptional. However, the ideas and institutions developed by New England Puritans had powerful effects on North American culture。

Although Bailyn goes on to apply his approach to some thousands of indentured servants who migrated just prior to the revolution, he fails to link their experience with the political development of the United States. Evidence presented in his work suggests how we might make such a connection. These indentured servants were treated as slaves for the period during which they had sold their time to American employers. It is not surprising that as soon as they served their time they passed up good wages in the cities and headed west to ensure their personal independence by acquiring land. Thus, it is in the west that a peculiarly American political culture began, among colonists who were suspicious of authority and intensely anti-aristocratic。

  1. Which of the following statements about migrants to colonial North America is supported by information in the text?

[A] A larger percentage of migrants to colonial North America came as indentured servants than as free agents interested in acquiring land。

[B] Migrants who came to the colonies as indentured servants were more successful at making a livelihood than were farmers and artisans。

[C] Migrants to colonial North America were more successful at acquiring their own land during the eighteenth century than during the seventeenth century。

[D] By the 1730's,migrants already skilled in a trade were in more demand by American employers than were unskilled laborers。

  1. The author of the text states that Bailyn failed to

[A] give sufficient emphasis to the cultural and political interdependence of the colonies and England。

[B] describe carefully how migrants of different ethnic backgrounds preserved their culture in the United States。

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